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Epistemic Injustice and Knowers’ Privilege
in Piedmont, California

While epistemic injustices are based on oppressive stereotypes which assert themselves throughout our society, the heart of Fricker’s work is that epistemic injustice is not merely a byproduct of other forms of oppression, but a unique form of injustice in its own right. Epistemic injustice serves the distinctive function of disempowering people as knowers. Central to this understanding is the cliche, “knowledge is power,”—that is, having access to the mechanisms of constructing and communicating knowledge is empowering to individuals and groups. Knowledge is also relational—when one group or individual denies the knowledge of another, or prevents them from participating in knowledge creation, they are exercising power over them in order to oppress. It is Fricker’s conclusion, and mine, that this oppressive power imbalance is fundamentally unethical (Fricker, 2007, p. 1) (Clarke, 2021).


This case study in progress

has two aims:


First to defend the availability and historical knowledge of Sidney Dearing’s story on a national level.


Secondly, it aims to demonstrate how the unequal distribution of historical knowledge and the concentration of gatekeeping power has perpetuated epistemic injustice and racism in Piedmont, California.


Despite this enclave in Oakland being founded 55 years later, Piedmont has a significantly higher percentage of Caucasian residents than its neighboring city. Given its location and proximity, the stark demographic difference between the two cities, raises questions about the historical factors and systemic issues that have contributed to this disparity.

Map - Open secrets.jpg

© OpenStreetMap contributors, © CARTO




In 2023, Oakland's population was 422,994, it is the 8th largest city in California and the 45th largest city in the United States.


Spanning over 78 miles, Oakland has a population density of 7,568 people per square mile.

The average household income in Oakland is $108,297 with a poverty rate of 17.36%.


The median age in Oakland is 36.6 years, 35.9 years for males, and 37.2 years for females.

It is the third-largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area, and the eighth largest city in California.

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Oakland was:

  • White: 34.36%

  • Black or African American: 22.69%

  • Other race: 17.28%

  • Asian: 15.76%

  • Two or more races: 8.43%

  • Native American: 0.9%

  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.6%




In 2023, Piedmont's  population was 10,605, it is the 365th largest city in California and the 3022nd largest city in the United States.


Spanning over 2 miles, Piedmont has a population density of 6,240 people per square mile.

The average household income in Piedmont is $311,922 with a poverty rate of 3.25%.


The median age in Piedmont is 45.5 years, 45.3 years for males, and 45.6 years for females.

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Piedmont was:

  • White: 73.78%

  • Asian: 19.48%

  • Two or more races: 4.72%

  • Black or African American: 1.77%

  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.17%

  • Other race: 0.08%

  • Native American: 0%

Red Foundations

Piedmont's history of redlining is well-documented through official deeds, maps, home advertisements and explicit declarations of racist restrictions by neighborhood home associations, which played a pivotal role in our city's founding.


"WHEREAS, the parties are mutually desirous of restricting the use and occupancy of all of the property in the district above described, solely and exclusively to persons wholly of the "White Caucasian or White Race"  "

Piedmont - Racial restrictions_edited.jpg


"Race restrictions will be enforced to the limit. Positively the most rigidly-restricted property in the entire Bay region."

1 Piedmont Highlands booklet about race restriction_edited.jpg


"Piedmont, according to a 1937 document from the Home Owner’s Loan Corporation, was a “favorable” place to build and make loans because of characteristics such as “landscaped streets” and “Racial restrictions.”  "

Redlining map.jpg



Clause XIV
No persons, except persons of the Caucasian race, shall be allowed to use or occupy said property, or any part thereof, except in the capacity of domestic servants of the occupant thereof. "

Piedmont - St James Woods Restrictions - Closer.jpeg

Questionable Chronicles

When one owns a majority of the history of a town, they get to define what stories are told.

A teacher at the Piedmont Unified School System emailed me this in 2021:

When I first moved to the area I contacted the Piedmont Historical society to gather information on racial covenants in Piedmont. The woman I spoke to claimed that there were no racial covenants and that Piedmont's racial segregation was caused by home prices preventing people of color from moving into the area. 

The Book, "Queen of the Hills," is a significant source of information about Piedmont, California's history, authored by Evelyn Craig Pattiani, the daughter of Piedmont's second mayor, Hugh Craig. Her book was published in 1953, when Evelyn was 77 years old. While she most likely had a good insight into some of the town's memories at the time, there are some factual discrepancies in her book that could be attributed to the lack of technology and availability of records as well as oral histories with unconscious and conscious bias.

​As the recorder and author of her book at the age of 48, she made the decision to include certain stories and exclude others, such as Sidney Dearing's story, which was covered extensively by newspapers from Oakland, California, to Utah in 1924. Additionally, the book contains some inconsistent facts. For example, during the 1934 Waterfront strike, she listed Piedmont's Police Chief as Pflaum, when in reality, it was Heere. Moreover, she claims that no one was hurt during the strike, whereas according to the news, four people were beaten and arrested in Piedmont.

Today, the book is widely quoted in the town's publications without proper fact-checking. As a result, the Queen of the Hills and her story have become a significant part of the town's "history." It is important to recognize that the book's content may not be entirely accurate, and alternative sources of information should be consulted to ensure a comprehensive understanding of Piedmont's history

Mrs Pattiani and Marjoria Trumbell at Edder's book store in San Francisco discussing Mrs P

Mrs Pattiani and Marjoria Trumbell at Edder's book store in San Francisco discussing Mrs Pattiani's book - Queen of the Hills in 1954. Credit Albert E Norman photo collection.

Piedmont Sources of Historical Truths

The credibility and reliability of sources of truth depend on their accuracy, objectivity, and transparency in presenting information - the epistemology of trust.

Piedmont Post

Originally a strictly print publication, now offers past publications in a PDF form accessible through a generic password-protected login due to the Covid-19 pandemic. "The Post," as it is often referred to, has been accused of politically motivated with selective exposure and is known to avoid articles that show the negative side of Piedmont. It was founded in October 1998 with "a mission to provide weekly content with articles and photos that would inform and entertain Piedmont residents." The Piedmont Post regularly reprints feature stories from the Piedmont Historical Society about Piedmont’s history. Not listed as a charity.

Piedmont Exedra

The "Exedra" as it is nicknamed, is exclusively online and writes articles that are more inclusive of all of its residents. It states that it was Founded in 2018, as a hyperlocal, independent news site created by a group of Piedmont residents. Since November 2022, the Exedra is a fiscally sponsored project of Bay City News Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.

Piedmont Historical Society

On their website, the Piedmont Historical Society says their purpose is to encourage interest and increase knowledge of Piedmont’s unique local history, to publish material of historical interest, to produce exhibits and events and to collect material of historical importance to the city. It does not mention it being charitable organization and having donations as tax deductible but is listed here as possibly being one. 

Membership levels start at $25 for an Individual to increase to Elevated members who can pay $500 or more to be a "Benefactor".

Hidden in Plain Sight

What is known of Sidney Dearing's time in Piedmont? Was the Dearing story just not "big enough" to tell or was this story suppressed causing long-lasting epistemic harms to our community?  (Landström 2021)

  • Was Sidney Dearing's name or history ever mentioned in any newspapers?
    Yes, on the front pages or headlining these newspapers: Oakland Tribune​ (neighboring city) San Francisco Chronicle (12 miles away) Daily Gazette in Martinez, California (25 miles away) Petaluma Daily Morning Courier in Petaluma, California (43 miles away) The Humboldt Times in Humboldt, California (300 miles away) The Ogden Standard Examiner in Ogden, Utah (5,398 miles away)
  • Was the story a small article buried in the back of the newspapers and could easily be missed by historians?
    Multiple news stories about the bomb threats that could blow up blocks and 500 person mob at his house​ spanning from 1924 to 1925. The KKK was also mentioned in Earl Warren's book.
  • Was the story only in local newspapers?
    No, even the The Ogden Standard Examiner from the state of Utah (5,398 miles away) had a lead photo of the Dearing family and their story.​
  • Is the story easily accessible for anyone to find?
    Yes, all of the pictures below I downloaded from with an easy search for "Sidney Dearing" or "Piedmont bomb"​ Followup: Do local Piedmont historians know how to use Piedmont Historian quoted in the Piedmont Exedra: "I gave them my “go-to” resources and then discovered for myself his shocking story. The website allows members to search newspaper articles throughout the country."
  • Were smaller stories in 1924 covered by local historians?​​
    The Piedmont Historical Society mentions the year 1924 two times on their website, "Wildwood School followed in 1924."​ "Piedmont Junior High School and the athletic field were soon added in 1924, and additions to the high school were built in 1937 and 1939." Did they mention other times in that decade with additional local stories? "On the death of Sarah Requa, the mansion was demolished in 1923, and daughter Amy Requa Long developed the estate into forty-two houses." "A gas station and bank were added in the 1920s." "In 1920, residents voted on “the two most important events” in the city’s history – to establish a high school and to acquire Piedmont Park. Piedmont High School was designed by William H. Weeks, and when it opened in 1921, it offered classes for both junior and senior high school students." "Piedmont developed its Master Plan for the Piedmont City Center in 1922. " "Albert Farr’s Exedra and Community Hall were built as the first phase of the 1922 Master Plan. Howard Gilkey designed the park’s new landscaping. The grand dedication ceremony was on April 3, 1925."
  • Have people and homes been profiled by Piedmont historians before?
    On the Historical Society lists its areas of focus. Issue dates are in parentheses: We have four issues covering Piedmont’s history up to 2007: Piedmont in the 1800s (2004) (out of print, Xerox copy only) Piedmont Becomes a City, 1900-1907 (2005) The Building Years, 1907-1930 (2006) Demolition and Construction, 1930-2007 (2007) Other newsletter issues include these histories: Piedmont’s Parks (2020) Treasures from the Piedmont Historical Society Collection (2019) William E. Sharon, the Man, his Family and his Estate (2018) One Hundred Years at Hampton Field (2017) Albert Farr, the Man and his Designs (2016) (This issue is $5 to purchase.) George Sterling (2015) Walter Blair, the Man (2014) Stories from Piedmont’s History (2013) Xavier Martinez, the Artist, his Studio and Piedmont’s Bohemian Colony (2012) (out of print, Xerox copy only) The Photographs of E. S. Cheney (2011) Charles McCall, Designing for a Purpose (2010) Alta Vista, the Henry Butters estate (2009) Palm Drive and St. James Drive (2008) (out of print, Xerox copy only) Piedmont’s Silk Farm (2004) Number Ten and Key System Streetcar Line in Piedmont (2003) Blair Park, Piedmont’s Amusement Park (2003) (out of print, Xerox only) The Ghirardelli Connection (2002) The Oldest House in Piedmont (2001) Axel Cederborg, Builder of Dreams (2001, 2000)
  • Is the Piedmont Historical Society new?
    According to the Piedmont Historical Society "The display and the town meeting which followed on April 12, 1972, were a success. Piedmont residents showed a great deal of interest in an historical society, and the Piedmont Historical Society was formed. Nine directors were nominated, and the first membership meeting was held at 55 Craig Avenue, the former Hugh Craig home, on September 10, 1972." The Historical Society was formed right after the height of the Civil Rights movement (1954 to 1968). The first membership meeting was held at 55 Craig, less than a year after the Oakland Tribune had an article on the same house raising the Confederate flag on a regular occasion. Are the members new? No, one of the main leaders graduated from Piedmont High School in 1962. Their father and grandfather were also residents of Piedmont. Maybe this person knows which men were in the blackface photos at the Rigma Mardi Gras party on 3/17/62?
1 Utah - Ogden_Utah_story_from__1924_names_Dearings_wife_and_kids_and_has_more_history.jpe

Ogden, Utah

5,398 miles away

Humboldt, CA 

300 miles away

Fresno, CA

174 miles away

Sidney's Time in Piedmont

1924 - 1925, a year of bombs, mobs and court cases.

Piedmont Starts to Recognize Sidney

Almost 100 years later, our city tell's his story.


timeline of Sidney Dearing's recognition in Piedmont:

  • 1926-2000:

    • 1997: Rhomberg, Christopher David. Social Movements in a Fragmented Society: Ethnic, Class and Racial Mobilization in Oakland, California, 1920-1970. United States, University of California, Berkeley, 1997. [Link] 

      • On pages 85, the book mentions Piedmont forcing Sidney Dearing to move and on page 93, Burton Becker is mentioned as our Police Chief and ​being involved in the KKK.

  • 1926-2010:

    • 2007: Rhomberg, Chris. No There There: Race, Class, and Political Community in Oakland. United Kingdom, University of California Press, 2007. [Link] Pages 53 and 61.​

  • 2019 - 2020:

    • 2019: Meghan Bennett starts researching racism in Piedmont, finds Sidney Dearing's story.

    • 2019: Montojo, Moore and Mauri. Roots, Race, & Place A History of Racially Exclusionary Housing in the San Francisco Bay Area. Haas Institute. October 2, 2019 [Link]

      • Mentions Sociologist Chris Rhomberg notes that Piedmont police refused to provide protection for Sidney Dearing.

    • Callan, W. (2020). One hundred and thirteen years ago, Piedmont declared independence. But the town’s special character was shaped long before that, Piedmont Exedra, January 25, 2020. [Meghan's (M) comment at bottom of the page referencing Sidney Dearing]

    • Blog: Malik, I A. (2020). Why Is There Another City Inside Of Oakland? MAR 12, 2020. [Coverage of Sidney Dearing, his house and redlining]

    • May 26, 2020: George Floyd protests begin, Sidney Dearing sign is shown at the protests.

    • June 15, 2020Meghan Bennett officially launches

    • Blog: Donahoe, T. (2020) Day 116 – Piedmont’s First Black Homeowner, July 9, 2020.

    • Katsuyama, J. (2020) Piedmont to fly Black Lives Matter flag, council to review policies for discrimination, KTVU FOX 2, August 4, 2020

    • Symkowick, M (2020). Uncovering Dearing: How Piedmont’s first Black homeowner was run out of town, and the lingering effects on the city’s history, Piedmont ExedraSeptember 15, 2020.

    • Lindenaum, Jill (2020). Newly created PREC explores link between housing, racism, Piedmont Post, September 23, 2020. [Piedmont's print only newspaper first mentions Sidney, via letter to the editor on page 30 of 32]

    • Aleksey, A. (2020). New diversity advocacy group tackles housing equity in Piedmont, Piedmont Post, September 30, 2020. [Piedmont's newspaper mentions Sidney on page 32 of 34]

    • Bowers, J. (2020). Message from Piedmont’s Police Chief, Piedmont Post, October 14, 2020. [Piedmont's newspaper finally mentions Sidney near the front page through Piedmont Police Chief Jeremy Bowers' message on page 2, under Opinions.]

    • Troyer, Pellissier and Lee (2020). Where We Came From … Where We’re Going, Piedmont Highlander (PHS Newspaper), October 21, 2020. 

    • Symkowick and Levinson. (2020) After Dearing: Residential segregation and the ongoing effects on Piedmont, Piedmont Exedra,  October 27, 2020.

    • Symkowick and Levinson. (2020) A ‘full, layered, textured’ story: Being Black in Piedmont today, Piedmont ExedraDecember 22, 2020.

  • 2021:

    • Ravani, S (2021). Piedmont residents wrestle with how to add more housing to exclusive enclave, San Francisco ChronicleMay 20, 2021.

    • Phillips, J (2021). An affluent East Bay city chased out its first Black homeowner a century ago - and still hasn't atoned, San Francisco ChronicleJune 13, 2021.

    • Lombardi, G. (2021) Commentary | Sidney Dearing and racism in Piedmont, Piedmont Exedra,  July 13, 2021. 

      • This was the first and only time the Piedmont Historical Society wrote about Sidney Dearing in any Piedmont newspaper. A year after Black Lives Matter protests started in Piedmont and at least 10 articles later, the Piedmont Historical Society writes about Piedmont History again.

Roots Race Place haasinstitute_rootsraceplace_oct2019_publish.png
Chris No there there.jpeg
Meghan Bennett photo - BLM - Piedmont6.jpeg
Piedmont Post - Sept 23 2020.jpg
Piedmont Post Sept 30 2020.jpg
Sidney Dearing Sunday June 13 2021.jpg



  • Was this an epistemic injustice that could no longer be hidden?

  • Who knew this story?

  • Did the historical society feel forced to write this?

  • Why did it take a year for the knowers to write about this history?

  • What is so different about this history than the plethora of other articles that have been written about Piedmont history?

  • If BLM protests did not happen, would Piedmont have acted so quickly in recognizing the Dearings?

In 2021, on page 18 of 22, the Piedmont Historical Society writes about Sidney Dearing.

2021 Fall - Piedmont Historical Society - Bennett donation 2.jpg
2021 Fall - Piedmont Historical Society - Bennett donation p18.jpg
2021 Fall - Piedmont Historical Society - Bennett donation 1.jpg

A Recognizable Donation


The Piedmont Historical Society made a webpage about Sidney Dearing, they named it "__trashed.html"

This could have been a typo, however, the Historical Society has named their other pages more respectable titles like "join.html"," publications.html", "history_of_piedmont.html", "history.html", or their latest page in 2023, "photo.html" with a recently discovered and uncredited photo from the Albert E Norman collection I’ve been indexing from 2022-present. 

PHS trashed 2.jpg

Lombardi, G. (2021) Commentary | Sidney Dearing and racism in Piedmont, Piedmont Exedra,  July 13, 2021:

​And yet, Dearing is not mentioned in the Piedmont Historical Society’s newsletters, articles, and website. Until the actions of the summer of 2020 and the renewed interest in historic racism, I had not heard of Sidney Dearing. When reporters for the Exedra contacted me in June asking for information on Dearing, I gave them my “go-to” resources and then discovered for myself his shocking story. The website allows members to search newspaper articles throughout the country. In California, newspapers from Sacramento to Whittier published articles on Dearing, and the Oakland Tribune provided a wealth of material. Bennett has included these clippings and more on her website.


  • The Historical Society says their "go-to" is, but how did they have so many newspapers talking about Sidney Dearing that are not on

The president of the Piedmont Historical Society, who I assume wrote the "___trashed" page about Sidney Dearing in Piedmont, mentioned in her article to the local Exedra news site that her “go to” for newspapers on Piedmont was, however, that site does not include the newspaper The Piedmont Weekly News. Those extremely rare sources are not found on the internet and are most likely in the possession of a local and niche historical society, most likely, a historical society in Piedmont.


I'm not in the possession of these newspapers and believe the Historical Society has had them the whole time or at very least easy access to them to quote 5 of these publications on their webpage about the Dearings. It would be interesting to see the whole articles -- uncensored – and view how Piedmont's newspapers wrote about Sidney Dearing and the town's reaction during this time. 

These newspapers were cited:

  • March 14, 1924, The Piedmont Weekly News 

  • May 6, The Piedmont Weekly News

  • May 30, The Piedmont Weekly News

  • June 30, The Piedmont Weekly News 

  • August 15, The Piedmont Weekly News

What is the Piedmont Weekly News?

Oakland Tribune - May 24, 1985:

The Piedmonter was founded as the Piedmont Weekly News in 1916 by a women's group at the Piedmont Community Church. The weekly was subsequently taken over by Frances Newton who got behind in his printing bills and sold the publication to his printer, the Piedmont Press, in 1926.

The Shoptaugh family, owners of the printing firm, changed the name to the Piedmonter…. George Shoptaugh, who ran the paper for 25 years. "We emphasized society news." He sold the Piedmonter in 1949 to Harry Magee. 

On August 15, the Piedmont Weekly News reported that the City of Piedmont prevailed in the first hearing against Sidney Dearing.  

Example of a newspaper the Piedmont Historical Society has on hand

Mobilizing and Memorializing

2022 and 2023: 3 years after Sidney Dearing's story was retold this century.

  • Kang, J C (2022). When a School Desegregates, Who Gets Left Behind? New York TimesMarch 10, 2022.

  • Richards, S (2022). City seeks to memorialize the Sidney Dearing family, Piedmont ExedraMay 17, 2022.

  • Aleksey, A (2022). Park Commission subcommittee to memorialize Dearing family, Piedmont Post, June 8, 2022.

When the City of Piedmont started talking about memorializing the Dearing family, how did the 2 Piedmont newspapers cover this?

This was the first and only time since 2020 the Piedmont Post had the Dearing story on the front page,

usually it is in the "Opinion" section or after page 30. There is no mention of the Poilce Chief being a high ranking official in the Ku Klux Klan in the article on the right.



  • Why is this the only time the Dearing name has been on the front page of the Piedmont Post?

  • Is this to motivate and possibly anger the community into not having the park named?

  • Why did the Piedmont Exedra say "The City" planned to memorialize Sidney Dearing but the Post degraded it to the "Park Commission"?

Until this point in 2023, Sidney and Irene's picture had never been in the Piedmont Post. 

  • Ozturk, S (2023). Sidney and Irene Dearing to be commemorated at triangle park, Piedmont Post, April 12, 2023. Opinion page.

April 12, 2023:


For the first time since 2020, The Piedmont Post has included a picture of Sidney and Irene Dearing. It has been three years since the first letter to the editor in the Post mentioned Sidney and his story here. Finally, 5 articles and letters mentioning the Dearings later, a photo of the family has finally been published in an article about the city's initiative to name the park on the Opinions page.

Previous coverage:

  • Piedmont Post, September 23, 2020: ​​letter to the editor on page 30 of 32 total.

  • Piedmont PostSeptember 30, 2020: article mentions Sidney on page 32 of 34 total in regards to a new diversity group in Piedmont & talks of required housing equity.

  • Piedmont Post, October 14, 2020: mentions Sidney through Piedmont Police Chief Jeremy Bowers' message on page 2, under Opinions.

  • Piedmont Post, June 8, 2022: Park Commission subcommittee to memorialize Dearing family. The only time Sidney has been mentioned on the front page in three years of his story being told again

Final Questions:

  • What other interesting BIPOC and underrepresented stories are known and owned by the Piedmont Historical Society and the Piedmont Post that have not been told?

  • Will stories like Carl Smith, Tom Williamson, The DeBolt Family and the servants of the wealthy Piedmont families have profiles in future Piedmont Historical Society publications Or will alternative methods like the Piedmont Exedra,, local wiki pages and websites have to tell these stories instead?

  • If the sources of truth are not fully transparent and selectively telling histories, then how can we trust previous stories are reliable? Have these knowers, the arbiters of history, lost their authority and credibility?

  • Has the Piedmont Historical Society no longer served its purpose? It did not encourage interest and increase knowledge of Piedmont’s unique local history when it came to Sidney Dearing, yet this is the most historical coverage and interest this city has had in local history in decades.

  • Does the Piedmont Historical Society and the Piedmont Post think that the underrepresented are not worthy of publishing material and of historical interest?

What comes next?

Will the park be named in the Dearing's honor?

Will another mob be against this?

Will the Piedmont Historical Society and Piedmont Post support this?

To be continued...

Note from the author:

  • My personal experience and knowledge of the 1920s in Piedmont is somewhat limited, as I have not had the opportunity to reside in 1924 and I could never interview the Dearings (I have, however, talked to their descendants). I have always had a keen interest in researching and understanding the historical roots of my hometown of Piedmont, which led to previous historical exchanges with the Piedmont Historical Society's president. Unfortunately, due to the Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent media attention regarding my research of Sidney Dearing, my attempts to communicate with the Society have been fruitless. I am left wondering why an organization dedicated to preserving and sharing Piedmont's history would not be interested in collaborating with the next generation. A member of our city finally has an exhaustive amount of energy to research, curate, archive, transcribe and create historical platforms while using modern technology that can reach a broader audience, yet is continuously given the cold shoulder. When individuals who share common goals and values are excluded, the potential for collaboration, innovation, and progress is also diminished. Embracing diversity, including individuals with differing viewpoints and backgrounds, can enrich your society and foster a more inclusive and dynamic community.

  • In recent years with the heightened focus on equity and inclusion, there has been a noticeable increase in public interest in Piedmont's history. Publications such as The New York Times, San Francisco Chronicle, and local high school newspapers have been publishing articles that delve into the town's rich history beyond its notable mansions.​ Today, a small room in the Recreation Department is guarded by a select few gatekeepers who hold the key to a trove of untold stories and historical evidence. These stories have the power to fill the pages of newspapers and captivate the imagination of a wider audience, helping them to appreciate and understand Piedmont's history in a new light. Unfortunately, the Piedmont Historical Society seems to have lost sight of this opportunity and instead is writing its own obituary after proving itself untrustworthy as knowers suppressing uncomfortable truths and not amplifying suppressed stories. With an antiquated reluctance to social and technological change, their continual focus on the threadbare profiles of Piedmont's aristocrats and estates, has shown the Society has lost its relevance and missed out on the chance to engage and educate new generations of members. Are they just perpetuating the exclusionary practices of Piedmont's past?



Fricker, M. (2007). Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford University Press.


Clarke, M. (2021). Epistemic Injustice and White Supremacy in information literacy instruction, p37


Gorman, J. (2004), Historians and Their Duties. History and Theory, 43: 103-117.

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